Beneficial impacts of Astaxanthin on Biomarkers of Antioxidant status and oxidative damage in Rats exposed to Ambient air

Effect of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by ambient air exposure was studied. Wistar albino rats were exposed to ambient air was administered with astaxanthin in doses varying between 0.5 to 2% of food intake. Various biological parameters like ALT, AST, ALP, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase, were estimated biochemically and the expression of Nrf2 and glutathione peroxidase genes were estimated by reverse transcriptase PCR. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP, MDA and the activity of antioxidant enzymes; SOD, GRd, catalase were found increased significantly in ambient air exposed rats. Ambient air exposure decreased the levels of glutathione, non protein thiols and GPx expression whereas total thiols and expression of Nrf2 increased. However the concurrent administration of astaxanthin was found to reverse these changes in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study revealed the ability of astaxanthin to alleviate liver toxicity and oxidative stress induced by ambient air exposure and points to the possibility of developing astaxanthin as a dietary supplement that reduce the ill effect of toxic chemicals from ambient air.

Published in: Chemical Biology Letters

Johnson, J. P., Renganthan, S., Menon, A., & Pillai, R. G. (2021). Beneficial impacts of Astaxanthin on Biomarkers of Antioxidant status and oxidative damage in Rats exposed to Ambient air. Chemical Biology Letters, 8(1), 1–9. https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/158

Phytochemical and in vitro analysis of Bornetella oligospora extract as alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor

One of the first-line therapy of diabetes mellitus is alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Due to side effects caused by synthetic drugs and limited sources, various studies have been conducted on herbal plants and macroalgae consisting of bioactive compounds with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study examines the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical compounds in ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of Bornetella oligospora, an abundant green alga in eastern Indonesia. The result showed that ethanol and ethyl acetate extract of Bornetella oligospora contained phytochemical components such as flavonoid, glycoside, triterpenoid, and steroid. The thin layer chromatography test showed ethanol extract have five spots with Rf 0.545, 0.527, 0.5, 0.473, and 0.154, while the ethyl acetate extract has two spots with Rf 0.58 and 0.64. The alpha-glucosidase inhibition assay showed IC50 values of the ethanol extract was 11.702 ug/mL and ethyl acetate extract was 95.384 ug/mL. In conclusion, Bornetella oligospora extract has the potential as an antidiabetic agent.

Published in Chemical Biology Letters

Siswanto, M. A., Paramita, R. I., Fadilah, F., & Poerwaningsih, E. H. (2021). Phytochemical and in vitro analysis of Bornetella oligospora extract as alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor. Chemical Biology Letters, 8(1), 40–44. https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/120

Mendeley

Mendeley is the popular citation management program from Elsevier, made available for free.

In 2021, Mendeley has updated its program and group feature in it has been discontinued. Scholars may download the recent version of Mendeley software from its site and use for inserting the citations in manuscript.

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The ScienceIn emphasize on the use of Citation Management program for insertion of references in your manuscript for the accuracy of respective references.

Authors may use Zotaro, Paper2 – open access softwares or
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or EndNote – paid software from Clarivate.

Few videos that authors may refer for using Mendeley are

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LJIy0Zua5M

Biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles using Olive Wastewater

Biosynthesis of the metallic nanoparticle is gaining importance because it is a single-step process, nontoxic, environmentally acceptable, and easily scaled up. The present study investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via reacting olive wastewater filtrate (OWF) with silver nitrate, and the formation of AgNPs was confirmed by a color change of the reaction mixture and visible spectrophotometry. Additionally, the influence of pH, reaction time, AgNO3 concentration, temperature, and OWF volume on the proposed method was investigated. It was found that with increasing the mentioned parameters, the formation of the AgNPs was increased under the experimental conditions. The results showed that OWF represented a promising material for the biosynthesis of AgNPs.

Authors: Abdounasser Albasher Omar, Nawal Abdurazq Ahmad, Mawada Moftah Rajab, Nour Elhoda Berrisha, Amani Almabrouk Alnakkaa, Bushra Adel Alshareef, Rana Rajab Qadmour 

Published in Journal of Materials NanoScience

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/243

In vitro anticancer and antitubercular activities of cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite synthesized using deep eutectic solvent as a dispersant

In the current scenario, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) are persuasive greener solvents for the successful synthesis of different nanostructures due to their tunable properties with enhanced applications. We report here the successful formation of a nanocomposite based on cellulose and magnetite nanoparticles. The method of isolating cellulose from fruit shells of Limonia acidissima (L.) as detailed in the work is described for the first time. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized through the cost effective co-precipitation method and DES embracing choline chloride and fructose were used as non-toxic dispersant for the synthesis of cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite. Various physiochemical parameters like compositional, structural, morphological and magnetic properties are analyzed using FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, SAED and VSM techniques. Anticancer and antitubercular activities, performed by MTT and LRP assays respectively, reveals that the IC50 values for cellulose, magnetite and cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite are found to be 20.65 µg/ml, 44.66 µg/ml and 8.685 µg/ml and cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite shows 51.95% inhibition at 200 µg/ml concentration against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The obtained results suggest that the prepared cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite can serve as a potential candidate for drug designing with the use of green solvents.

Authors: Swathi Pon Sakthi Sri. V, Mary George

Published in: Journal of Materials NanoScience

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/188

Novel 5-Nitro Isatin derivatives as DNA Gyrase inhibitors: synthesis, anti-microbial evaluation, molecular docking, ADMET predictions and QSAR studies

Novel series of 5-nitroindoline-2-ones was synthesized starting from 5-nitroindoline-2,3-dione 2 and 2-(5-nitro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)hydrazine-1 carbothioamide 3. Compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. The data showed that compounds 2 and 6b have excellent antimicrobial activities against the two tested strains of G+ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus and E. coli when compared with the standards. Furthermore, in-vitro enzyme assay and molecular docking studies were performed for the compounds 2 and 6b against E. coli DNA gyrase B. Prediction of ADMET properties and QSAR study of compounds was carried out respectively.

Published in: Chemical Biology Letters

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/131

Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and In-vitro Antioxidant potential of Parthenium hysterophorus Stem sequentially extracted fractions

Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in pathophysiological events of different diseases. Antioxidants mitigate and suppress the adverse effect of OS in the body. Due to lesser side effects and cost effectiveness natural antioxidant is a choice of people nowadays. The present study was designed to characterize/analyze phytochemicals and antioxidant potential in Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) stem (PHS) sequentially extracted fractions. Chemical characterization of PHS samples was carried out using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Spectrophotometric techniques. Comparative antioxidant potential in PHS fractions was studied using in vitro antioxidant models. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed to show a differential occurrence of phytochemicals in test fractions and related radical scavenging potential. PHS fractions showed differential presence of compounds. Appreciable radical scavenging, reducing power, and metal ion chelation potential was found in PHS fractions. In conclusion, P. hysterophorus stem may be considered a good source of natural antioxidant compounds.

https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/162

Green synthesized Allium cepa nanoparticles with enhanced antiprotozoal activities for E. gingivalis

Allium cepa has phytochemical characteristics well known to be used in our gastronomy. Due to its particle size, low systemic bioavailability is the major disadvantage associated that pose major hurdle for its use for medicinal purpose. These limitations can be overcome by converting the bulk size particles to nanosized particles. The present study was to prepare the nano-particles of Allium cepa with improved aqueous solubility, and to investigate their in-vitro efficacy against Entamoeba gingivalis, a protozoan associated with poor oral hygiene leading to advanced periodontal disease. Allium cepa nanoparticles of the size ranging 85–95 nm with the aqueous solubility of upto 3 mg/mL were prepared, and the anti-amoebic activities were tested in-vitro against Entamoeba gingivalis (ATCC 30927). The trophozoites of Entamoeba gingivalis were cultured in the presence of Allium cepa’s Bulk/nano- particles or metronidazole, the inhibition caused by each particles type at various concentrations was calculated by counting the viable trophozoites under the inverted microscope. Allium cepa nanoparticles showed inhibitory results of more than 80%, which is comparable with that of standard drug Metronidazole against E. gingivalis demonstrating its use as a potential anti-parasitic herbal drug.

Published in: Chemical Biology Letters

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/246

Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): Can GLP-1 Receptor Agonists fill in the gaps?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic syndrome, which occurs due to increased glucose levels in the human body. There has been lot of work in developing novel approaches to tackle this disease. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), one of the class-B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), is a budding molecular target to design drugs for treating type 2 diabetes. In this review, authors have summarized the physiological actions of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and current available drugs based on GLP-1 RAs. Some of the exemplary studies in this area have been examined in detail. Authors conclude that development of degradation-resistant, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists is a promising area of research and lot of work needs to be done to understand its mechanism of action.

Published in: Chemical Biology Letters

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/132

1,3,4 Oxadiazole: An emerging scaffold to target different growth factors and kinases

Five member heterocyclic 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. Compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in their structure are characterised by multidirectional biological activity. The important mechanism behind tumor suppression by 1,3,4-Oxadiazole is related with the inhibition of different growth factors, enzymes and kinases etc. The 1,3,4-Oxadiazole scaffold is a five member heterocyclic ring having versatile activities and created interest for synthetic organic and medicinal chemists for the designing of novel compounds having anti- cancer activity. There are great potential in the development of the simple and small 1,3,4-oxadiazole nucleus which is present in various compounds that possess considerable pharmcological properties such as anticancer and aimed to evaluate new products. The main aim of this review article is to highlight the targeted activity of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives and their structure activity relationship to generate potential anticancer agents.

Published in: Chemical Biology Letters

Link: https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/163