Impact of Ayurvedic drug Tinospora cordifolia in hyperlipidemia induced dysbiosis

Gut microbiota broadly impacts human health, but urinary microbial metabolites remain largely undefined. The concentration of microbial metabolites can be directly correlated with microbial populations in the human gut to define disease states. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms is being used for ages in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine and it has hypolipidemic and hypoglycaemic activity. Present study investigate the MS-based metabolomics variations of possible gut microbiota associated metabolites in hyperlipidemia (HPL) and HPL treated with Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) (TRT). Twenty-four HPL male patients and 10 age-matched controls (HLT) were enrolled. Early morning fasting blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 14th of TCE treatment and subjected to lipid profiling and Q-TOF-MS analysis. Multivariate analysis showed urinary levels of urocanic acid, hydroxyphenylacetate, linolenic acid, phenylpropionate, hypoxanthine, and indole acetate produced by Peptostreptococcs asaccharolyticus, Clostridium difficile, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium, Subdoligranulum, Lactobacillus, Clostridium sporogenes, E. coli were depleted in HPL patients as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, levels of serotonin, acetylleucine, hippuric acid, and arabinitol were found to be increased (>2.0 fold, p<0.005). However, TCE treatment reverted the levels of these metabolites and therefore, gut microflora. Also, Cloacibacterium haliotis, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bifidobacterium population decreased in HPL patients. Increased secretion of yeast or Candida albicans associated metabolites was because of their increased population. Hence, TCE treatment enhanced the growth of useful gut microbiota in hyperlipidemia patients.

Genome-wide mutation/SNP analysis, biological characteristics, and Pan-India prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern

The origin of COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was traced to Wuhan, China. Thereafter, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolved into various variants owing to genome-wide mutations, causing emergence of multiple variants, including Variant of Interest and Variant of Concern. Here, we discuss genomic architecture of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its multiple variants- alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, along with their biological properties, such as transmissibility, reduction in antibody-mediated neutralization, virulence, disease severity, vaccine effectiveness, and the prevalence across the India vis-à-vis world. Our data on VOC, pooled from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data up to 31 October 2021, shows around 89% prevalence of delta VOC across various Indian States. Whereas alpha, beta, and gamma variants show 10.44%, 0.57%, and 0.11% prevalence, respectively. Compared with global scale, the reported Indian prevalence of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta are 0.40%, 0.63%, 0.04%, and 1.7%, respectively. Furthermore, prevalent vaccines of various natures show significantly reduced effectiveness against these VOCs, necessitating urgent need for development of effective prophylactic vaccines and potential therapy to contain the pandemic.

Novel Inhibitors of malarial aspartyl proteases, plasmepsin II and IV: In silico design and validation studies

In the dire need of novel inhibitors of enzymes, computational approaches have significantly expedited the drug discovery process. Aspartic protease enzymes of Plasmodium falciparum such as plasmepsin II (PfPlm II) and plasmepsin IV (PfPlm IV) have been recognized as an attractive drug target for antimalarial drug discovery. In line with this, we performed high-throughput screening of 316 novel compounds based on validated pharmacophore i.e., hydroxyethylamine (HEA) and piperazine against both PfPlm II and PfPlm IV. The obtained hit compound-protein complexes were subjected for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 200ns and found stable. Thermodynamic energy calculated for the complexes also supported compound’s stability within the binding pocket of plasmepsins. The results of our study strongly support an immediate validation of the virtually screened hits in biological systems.

A comprehensive review on therapeutic properties of Mustard Oil and Olive Oil

Plants and their extracts have been extensively studied for their efficacy in therapeutic applications. Their Essential Oils (EOs) are responsible for the majority of biological properties such as anticancer, antibacterial and antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardio-protective. The utilization of natural compounds is gaining a lot of attention these days. These oils act as natural alternatives to the modern medical system to cure the illness that occurs in the biological system. This review provides an overview of the impact of the two most important plant-based oils: Mustard oil and Olive oil, the role of their components in different biological activities leading to their therapeutic applications. Their intake provides health benefits by controlling the symptoms of the diseases that involve cancer, bacterial infections, inflammation, cardiovascular, and some other common diseases. Most of the results come from in vitro and in vivo studies. However, their use in clinical studies is very little known.

Journal of Molecular Chemistry

Journal of Molecular Chemistry is an ideal home for Chemistry research advances in Organic Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymer Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Green Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry and Applied Chemistry.

The Journal of Molecular Chemistry is a peer reviewed international journal at the heart of chemistry, meant to cover research at all stages from molecule design, synthesis to applications. The journal publishes research in chemistry at molecular level to applications in biological or physical/materials field. It covers the Organic Chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, catalysis, new methodologies, natural product synthesis, new reaction pathways, peptide synthesis, small molecule synthesis, Chemistry research, chemical technology and other allied areas covering advances in chemistry and exploration of molecular applications in biology, medicine, polymer, materials and environment.

Journal of Molecular Chemistry

https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/jmc

The journal publishes full length research articles, review article, tutorial articles, expert opinions from all field of organic chemistry and allied chemistry research including Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Catalysis, Medicinal Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Macrocyclic chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, NanoChemistry, Chemical Engineering and all other research advances related to new chemistry development. The chemistry research fraternity is invited to submit their next excellent article on journal site

https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/jmc

Author guidelines and article templates are provided on the journal site.

Molecular Chemistry Letters

Molecular Chemistry Letters is a lead journal of Chemistry research in Organic Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymer Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Green Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry and Applied Chemistry.

The Molecular Chemistry Letters is an international journal meant to provide a rapid forum for publication of quality original research from molecule design, synthesis and applications with major coverage in organic chemistry and interdisciplinary chemistry research. The Molecular Chemistry Letters covers the synthetic organic chemistry, catalysis, new methodologies, natural product synthesis, new reaction pathways, peptide synthesis, small molecule synthesis, Polymer chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Chemistry Biology Interface research, chemical technology, green chemistry, environmental chemistry and other allied areas covering advances in chemistry.

Molecular Chemistry Letters

https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/mcl

The journal publishes short communications (letters), research articles, review article, tutorial articles, expert opinions from all field of organic chemistry and allied chemistry research including Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Catalysis, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Macrocyclic chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, NanoChemistry, Chemical Engineering and all other research advances related to new chemistry development. The chemistry research fraternity is invited to submit their next excellent article on journal site

https://pubs.thesciencein.org/journal/index.php/mcl

Author guidelines and article templates are provided on the journal site.

Clinical status of potential drugs used for COVID-19 treatment and recent advances in new therapeutics – A review

COVID-19, a perilous disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has brought a massive damage to humankind, and turned into a global catastrophe. It was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and since then has been a constant source of worry for the scientists and the medical world, due to the carnage it has caused globally. Extensive clinical studies are being carried to explore drug therapy and prophylaxis to combat this pestilence.  It is still an excessively big challenge for the scientists and pharmacological industry to develop potential drugs for the treatment of this deadly virus. At present though no specific drug has been identified as a perfect cure for this zoonotic disease, medical practitioners are using the therapy of repurposing of drugs for the treatment. Systemic research was carried out through e-resources to identify drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. A recent proposal of 2-DG drug as a cure for COVID-19 has also been discussed in this review.

Testosterone in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide with more than 1.5 million deaths occurring annually. Males have been known to be more susceptible to tuberculosis than females. Sex hormones could be an important factor governing this gender bias. Here, we discuss the evidence that testosterone may be a crucial factor in male susceptibility to tuberculosis considering that testosterone impairs important factors which have a significant bearing on the outcome of tuberculosis. We also discuss possible underlying mechanisms through which testosterone modulates the immune response that is necessary for host resistance to tuberculosis. We discuss various models that have helped to uncover the role of testosterone in the outcome of infection by M. tuberculosis. Studying the role of testosterone on the various components that constitute the immune response to the disease have provided valuable insights into the sexual dichotomy observed in male bias in tuberculosis morbidity.

A comparative study of isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection at point-of-care

COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has put most of the world under lockdown. Despite approved vaccines, COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths have remained on the rise. Rapid diagnosis and necessary public health measures are still key parts to contain the pandemic. Here, the colorimetric isothermal nucleic acid amplification tests (iNAATs) for SARS-CoV-2 detection based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), cross-priming amplification (CPA), and polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) were designed and compared in performance for the first time. The findings showed that, for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic-RNA, LAMP outperformed both CPA and PSR, exhibiting the limit of detection (LOD) of roughly 43.14 copies/reaction. The results can be read with the naked eye within 45 minutes, without cross-reactivity to closely related coronaviruses. The direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in simulated specimens by iNAATs was also successful. Additionally, the lyophilized reagents for LAMP reactions maintained the sensitivity and LOD of the liquid assays. The colorimetric LAMP assay was validated using clinical samples, showing 98.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity upon using extracted samples and 82.4% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity upon using unextracted specimens. The results indicate that the direct colorimetric LAMP assay developed is highly suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2 at point-of-care.

Immunoendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis and male reproduction

Human reproductive system involve a number of intricate complex interconnected physiological metabolic pathways and metabolites with involvement of overall health of different body organs. Overall health alterations mediated physiological conditions such as obesity, diabetes etc. bring about additional variations in expression and presence of metabolic constituents including kinases, hormones, proteins, peptides. The detailed analysis of various molecules like endocrine hormones, neuropeptides, immunity and inflammation associated kinases and proteins that have an end effect in cells and tissues, and might be playing a role in impacting male reproduction have been deliberated here. A deliberative collection of obesity and infertility related molecules including endocrine hormones, cytokines, adipokines, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, ghrelin, orexins, leptin, adropin, chemerin, along with diabetes and age related physiological impact analysis on male reproductive system have been included in this selective compilation. An in-depth understanding of changes and introduction of new intermediate molecules for regulation of physiological phenomena like energy homeostasis in obesity regulation and their interlinked associated impact on the male fertility potential would provide a reflection for possible development of new therapeutics.