Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics in the treatment of reproductive tract infections and their association with male infertility
Male infertility is a multifactorial condition which in some cases are presented with unidentifiable underlying causes. Men with idiopathic or non-curable oligoasthenoteratozoospermia as well as with unexplained infertility may be provided with non-hormonal medical treatment which includes the use of anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, fibrinolytic compounds, vitamin supplementation, and oligo-elements, presuming that most of these cases are possibly caused by inflammation and/or oxidative stress. In the case of the known pathogenic mechanisms responsible for male infertility, the treatments include specific antibiotics targeting the exact pathogenic strains, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting particular infections, as well as the use of antioxidants, singly or in combinations to ameliorate the detected oxidative stress. Combined non-hormonal therapies have also shown to improve semen quality. Since there is a lack of consensus regarding the exact dose, duration and effects of non-hormonal treatment on male infertility, this review article aims to present a comprehensive summary of how antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics treatment in reproductive tract infections are associated with amelioration of male fertility parameters.