Chemical Biology Letters <p>Chemical Biology Letters is a peer reviewed journal for publication of research and review articles from Medicinal Chemistry, BioChemistry, Chemical Biology, Drug Development and Drug Delivery related studies.</p> ScienceIn Publishing en-US Chemical Biology Letters 2347-9825 Novel fluorinated piperazine based-amino acid derivatives as antiplasmodial agents: Synthesis, bioactivity and computational studies <p>A library of twenty novel analogues of fluorinated, N-(3-hydroxy-1-phenyl-4-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)alkyl)amides containing different amino acids were synthesized and tested for the activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> (<em>Pf</em>3D7) culture. All the tested compounds showed TC<sub>50</sub> values &gt;100 µM on HepG2 cells. Hit analogues <strong>12c</strong> and <strong>12e</strong>, displayed IC<sub>50 </sub>values in the sub-micromolar range, <em>i.e.</em>, 0.696±0.0462 µM and 0.9377±0.0461 µM, respectively. Compounds <strong>12c</strong> and <strong>12e</strong> were also evaluated in combination with artemisinin, which slightly improved the activity of both the compounds with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 0.19 µM and 0.26 µM, respectively. For compounds <strong>12c</strong> and <strong>12e</strong>, <em>in-silico</em> studies were carried out. Overall, results obtained from both <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in-silico </em>studies, indicated that <strong>12c </strong>and<strong> 12e</strong> were hit compounds with maximum potency.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.<strong>543</strong></em></p> Charu Upadhyay Shreya Bhattacharya Sumit Kumar Dharmender Kumar Neha Bhadula Brijesh Rathi Agam Prasad Singh Poonam Singh Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 10 3 543 543 Dietary Polyphenolics: Mechanistic role in control management of Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome <p>The search for an antidiabetic drug is going on three fronts: technological (for instance, development of an artificial pancreas), biological (such as pancreas and islet cell transplants), and pharmacological. Our review focusses on the role of polyphenolics in pharmacological research for T2DM. Being the most abundant antioxidants in human diets, dietary polyphenols have proven efficacy against a variety of diseases in both animal and human trials. Here, the authors present a review of advances in using polyphenols obtained from diet against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Authors have discussed the role of polyphenols in disease management, and their sources. In addition to that, current knowledge of prevalent pathways of their action in cases of diabetes and metabolic syndrome have been discussed. The future directions and perspectives about diet polyphenols as a good alternative to first-line drug interventions have been included.</p> Kunika Saini Smriti Sharma Vinayak Bhatia Yousuf Khan Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 10 3 541 541 Role of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators in the treatment of Organophosphorus poisoning: in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies <p>Chemical warfare agents, especially organophosphorus (OP) compounds, are known for their extreme toxicity causing inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity due to covalent phosphorylation. This leads to functional impairment of muscarinic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in severe ill effects that ultimately lead to death. For OP poisoning, AChE reactivators play a crucial role in the treatment process. Among several AChE reactivators, Oxime reactivators are majorly employed for the treatment of OP intoxication, nevertheless, these are associated with certain drawbacks such as their toxic effects, low blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, less reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), and inefficiency toward all nerve agents, and blocked AChE. As a result, new therapeutic strategies are required. Recent attempts are focused on the design and synthesis of uncharged oximes or non-oxime reactivators which can overcome the limitations of oxime-based reactivators. A novel class of non-oxime reactivators is gaining interest, including compounds like Mannich phenols, chloroquines, and some general bases. This review is a novel attempt to incorporate various possible oxime and non-oxime AChE reactivators for OP intoxication along with their in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.202<strong>3</strong>.v<strong>10</strong>.<strong>538</strong></em></p> Ratandeep Ayushi Garima Laishram Saya Devi Pooja Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 10 3 538 538 In-vitro evaluation of synergism in antioxidant efficiency of Quercetin and Resveratrol <p>Plants serve as an excellent source of therapeutic molecules that help in medicinal treatments. The production of large amounts of pure phytocompounds from plant sources for human consumption and the nature of phytocompounds exhibiting toxicity issues at higher dosages lead to the challenge of increasing the therapeutic effect by using low dosages. This current study focuses on extracting two active antioxidant compounds, quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (R), from plant sources and evaluating their ability to exhibit antioxidant synergism through <em>in vitro</em> models. Quercetin and resveratrol were extracted using an ethanol-solvent extraction procedure from <em>Allium cepa, and Vitis vinifera</em> peels, respectively. The extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis, column chromatography and then High-Performance Liquid chromatography for purification. DPPH, ABTS<sup>+</sup>, SOS, and cellular antioxidant assays evaluated the synergistic antioxidant activity of the quercetin and resveratrol complex. The results showed synergistic antioxidant efficacy values approximately as follows: 5.37 % in DPPH, 15.26 % in ABTS+, 11.99 % in SOS, and 19.13 % in cellular antioxidant assays when both molecules were used combinedly. The results promisingly pave the way for a new dimension in nutraceuticals formulation parameters which could trigger combined molecular usage to achieve better results at low dosages.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.534</em></p> Nivetha Murugesan Chandraprabha Damodaran Selvakumar Krishnamoorthy Madhan Raja Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 10 3 534 534 Deciphering the role of c-MET in Metabolic reprogramming of Head and Neck squamous cell Carcinoma via In Silico analysis <p>Targeting of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) has become a major strategy for the control of head and neck cancer. c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase is known to be expressed in many cancers including the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The c-MET activity has been correlated with many signaling pathways that help the cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and invade into the normal, healthy tissues. The association of c-MET with glycolytic pathway in HNSCC has not been elucidated yet. Since, increased glycolysis has emerged as a major hallmark for cancer cell proliferation, targeting c-MET could bring an impact to inhibit HNSCC progression. In the present study we use various In-silico tools available to identify the association of c-MET with the major metabolic genes such as HK-II (Hexokinase-II), GLUT-1 (Glucose transporter-I), LDH-A (Lactate dehydrogenase-A), PFK-II (Phosphofructokinase-II) and MCT-1 (Monocarboxylate transferase-1) in HNSCC patient datasets available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Protein networking analysis was used to determine the correlation of c-MET with the metabolic genes. Retrieved sequenced data pathway analysis gives the network of genes associated in the activation of glycolytic pathway. Gene ontology and Enrichr studies provide an insight into c-MET activity in metabolism through molecular, functional and pathway basis in HNSCC. Furthermore, we also have shown a negative correlation of c-MET with immune cell infiltration, suggesting c-MET might have a role in immune suppression in HNSCC patients. Further validation on this study could possibly make c-MET as a potential target to inhibit HNSCC.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.532</em></p> Sibi Raj Brijesh Rathi Pravesh Mehra Shailendra Asthana Dhruv Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 10 3 532 532 Regioselective synthesis of indole-thiazolidine-2,4-dione coupled isoxazoles as in vitro tubulin polymerization inhibitors <p>Herein we synthesized new indole-thiazolidine-2,4-dione coupled isoxazoles (7a-n) via simple reactions like N-propargylation, Knoevenagel condensation and copper (I) catalysed one pot regioselective reactions. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectra and they were screened for <em>in vitro</em> anticancer activity against three human cancer cell lines like A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), and SKOV3 (ovarian) using MTT assay and etoposide was used as the standard drug. As per the results the compounds <strong>7e</strong>, <strong>7f</strong> and <strong>7g</strong> where shown selectivity towards A549 cell line with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 5.27 µM, 3.14 µM and 6.25 µM respectively and they are high active than etoposide. Further <em>in vitro</em> tubulin polymerization assay on three potent compounds (<strong>7e</strong>, <strong>7f</strong> and <strong>7g</strong>) revealed that compounds 7e and 7f have exhibited potency than standard combretastatin A-4 with IC<sub>50</sub> values 0.82 and .044 mM respectively.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v<strong>10</strong>.<strong>531</strong></em></p> Sunitha Boda Ravinder Manchal Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 10 3 531 531 In Silico Docking Studies of Yucca gloriosa L. Phytoconstituents with TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 Receptor Against Asthma <p><em>Yucca gloriosa</em> L. has been comprehensively assessed <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> for its action against asthma. <em>Y. gloriosa</em> L. is a rich source of phenolic compounds such as gloriosaols A-E and yuccaols A-E, which exhibit potent antioxidant activity. Gloriosaols A-E and yuccaols A-E are structurally related to corticosteroids. The current study describes the <em>in silico</em> docking of some important anti-asthmatic phytoconstituents from the plant <em>Y. gloriosa</em> L. with molecular targets of asthma. Toward the recognition of the binding methods of these pharmacologically dynamic components, molecular modelling studies were carried out with target proteins, i.e., interleukin (IL)-6 (1N26), IL-13 (3LB6) and TNF-α (2AZ5), using <em>in silico</em> molecular docking. The components demonstrated encouraging binding interactions with the amino acid residues at the active sites of these proteins, authenticating their verified efficiency as anti-asthmatic agents. The current research, in addition, provides insight into the possible herbal drug-receptor interaction and synthetic drug montelukast sodium receptor interaction, for the possible management of asthma.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.<strong>509</strong></em></p> Saurabh Gupta Ajmer Singh Grewal Geeta Deswal Sachin Singh Sukrati Vishwas Vishnu Badavath Kamal Dua Priyanka Thakur Thakur Gurjeet Singh Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 10 3 509 509 Synthesis, characterization and anticancer evaluation of new 1H-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazole-4,9-dione-1,2,4-oxadiazole hybrids <p>New series of 1<em>H</em>-naphtho[2,3-<em>d</em>]imidazole-4,9-dione-1,2,4 oxadiazoles (<strong>10a-10l</strong>) synthesized using NH<sub>2</sub>OH.HCl/Et<sub>3</sub>N and POCl<sub>3</sub>/DMF (Vilsmeier reagent) mediated one-pot reaction between 2-(4,9-dioxo-4,9-dihydro-1<em>H</em>-naphtho[2,3-<em>d</em>]imidazol-1-yl)acetonitrile and several aromatic carboxylic acids as key approach have been reported here. All synthesized compounds were screened for the <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines such as A549, PC3, and MCF-7. Three compounds (<strong>10d</strong>, <strong>10f</strong> and <strong>10k</strong>) exhibited superior activity than the standard etoposide against all the cell lines with IC<sub>50</sub> values &lt;2 μM. Finally, molecular docking studies revealed the important binding interactions of potent compounds <strong>10d</strong>, <strong>10f</strong> and <strong>10k </strong>with the α, β-tubulin (PDB ID-1SA0).</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.506</em></p> Sasidhar Alluru Sailaja BBV Arani Pal Copyright (c) 2023 ScienceIn Publishing 2023-01-11 2023-01-11 10 3 506 506 Nanoemulsion of Mentha piperita essential oil active against Mycobacterium strains <p>Present investigation aimed to study the antimycobacterial potential of <em>Mentha piperita</em> essential oil fractions, identify its active constituents by GC-MS and preparation of nanoemulsion from biologically active fraction. Four oil fractions (R1, R2, R3, R4) were collected during hydrodistillation of <em>Mentha piperiata</em> leaves and tested in the two of mycobacterial strains by conventional disc diffusion method. Oil fractions R2 and R3 demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition of 39 mm and 36 mm in <em>Mycobacterium smegmatis</em>, 33 mm and 31 mm in <em>Mycobacterium bovis</em> BCG respectively at a dilution of 75% in DMSO compared to standard drug isoniazid (23 mm in 4 µg/ml). GC-MS analysis of the most active fraction R2 reveals the presence of menthol (70.69%), isomenthone (14.63%) and neomenthol (6.82%) as major constituents. To enhance bioavailability of oil fraction, the nanoemulsions were prepared from R2 by sonication method. Nanoemulsions, N1 and N2 prepared by varying surfactant concentrations were tested in <em>Mycobacterium bovis</em> BCG using quantitative and colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). Nanoemulsions, N1 and N2 have shown 97-100 % bacterial growth inhibition at 3.125 % concentration in the culture medium compared with the culture control.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.507</em></p> Niharika Sinha Deeksha Sharma Md. Sajid Hussain Megha Nain Ruby Verma Sameena Alam Rajesh Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-12-26 2022-12-26 10 3 507 507 Development and validation of Hand-held device for the rapid detection of Metformin in biological samples: A forensic application <p>Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that enhances glycaemic control by advancing the insulin sensitivity abatement of intestinal glucose absorption. Due to its versatility, it is also emerging as an abused drug leading to toxicity and fatal conditions. Detection of metformin with the existing qualitative and quantitative approaches necessitate complex and intricate instrumentation, fully facilitated laboratories, and trained scientist and technicians. Henceforth, in the current study, we have developed a hand-held electronic device-based detection system for metformin using the basic principles of spectrophotometry. It is based on the formation of a yellowish-green color complex (wavelength 680nm) which involves the oxidative coupling of 3-methyl 2-benzothiozoline hydrazone (MBTH) catalyzed by iron. The method developed has been optimized at different pH, reaction temperature, and reaction time and found to be specific, sensitive, and linear in the range of concentration 100-1000 µg/ml with the limit of detection (LOD) of 120.5 µg/ml.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.<strong>486</strong></em></p> Priyanka Verma Nitesh Kumar Suman Nagpal Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 10 3 486 486 Global Cancer Statistics 2022: the trends projection analysis <p class="05Abstracttext"><span lang="EN-US">Cancer is one of the most fatal diseases of recent times that causes several deaths every year. The disease variations in different parts of the world, the impact of available medical facilities, and other socio-economic factors have impacted the proper management of this disease. The comparative statistical data of cancer types like breast, prostate, colon, lung, lymph, blood, brain, and kidney cancers can be used to design treatment strategies and therapeutics development. With the advancement of science, several drugs besides diagnostic methods have emerged to control respective cancer and have assisted in curing this disease to some extent. The comparative statistics analysis for cancer about current prevalence is included here to bring a clear framework for the efforts towards future drug development to manage this disease. The availability of new diagnostics and therapeutics and advanced medical facilities in clinics impact cancer statistics. An evaluation of current trends and statistics of cancer pathology vis-à-vis theranostics (diagnostics as well as therapeutics) progress with possible application in clinical settings constitutes the core part of the discussion in this review.</span></p> <p class="05Abstracttext"><span lang="EN-US"><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2023.v10.451</em></span></p> Bhupender S. Chhikara Keykavous Parang Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-11-02 2022-11-02 10 3 451 451 Synthesis of new regioselective imidazole-isoxazole hybrids as in vitro antibacterial agents <p>The one-pot synthesis of some novel imidazole-isoxazole hybrids<strong> (5a-5n)</strong> and their <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial evaluation against <em>Bacillus </em>subtilis and<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>was described herein. Among all, compounds <strong>5f</strong>, <strong>5g, 5i </strong>and <strong>5j </strong>displayed greater zone of inhibition on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> than the standard streptomycin. Besides, compounds <strong>5f, 5g, 5h, 5i, 5j </strong>and<strong> 5k</strong> displayed higher zone of inhibition towards <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> than the standard. Lastly, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies of active compounds <strong>5f</strong>, <strong>5g</strong>, <strong>5h</strong>, <strong>5i</strong>, <strong>5j</strong> and <strong>5k </strong>showed that the compounds<strong> 5i </strong>and<strong> 5j</strong> having lesser MIC values on <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis </em>than the standard.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2022.v9.425</em></p> Sudheer Reddy V Rajashekar Reddy N Venkatram Reddy A Padma M Krishnakanth Reddy Lelelti Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-10-14 2022-10-14 10 3 425 425 Metal based bio-active 1,2,4 triazole derivatives: Preparation, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies <p>We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of metal complexes of bivalent Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Zinc and Palladium with novel Schiff base ligand 4-((4-isopropoxybenzylidene)amino)-5-propyl-4H-3-thiol-1,2,4-triazole (IBPT). The ligand (IBPT) was derived by the condensation reaction of 4-isopropoxybenzaldehyde and 4-amino-5-propyl-3-thiol-1,2,4-triazole and characterised by IR and proton(<sup>1</sup>H) NMR spectroscopic techniques. The complexes have been investigated using characterised Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR), UV−visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Based on the comparative analysis of IR and NMR data of ligand and metal complexes, it has been suggested that the ligand chelates with metal ions in a bidentate fashion <em>via</em> N (azomethine) and S (thiol) atoms. Elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments and redox behaviour of complexes have also been studied. In addition, Tauc's formula has been employed to determine the optical bandgap of complexes using the electronic spectral data. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the number of coordinated water molecules and thermal stability of metal complexes. Various thermodynamic and kinetic parameters have been evaluated with the help of thermal data using Coats- Redfern method. The octahedral environment of divalent Cobalt, Nickel and Zinc complexes while square planner structure of Copper and Palladium complexes was elucidated with the help of spectroscopic data. Moreover, in-vitro antimicrobial activities of Schiff base ligand and its complexes were estimated against four pathogenic bacterial (two Gram Positive, two Gram negative) and three fungal strains (<em>C. Albicans, A. Niger and A. Clavatus</em>). The biological outcomes ensure the convenient utility of these novel complex as antimicrobial agents.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2022.v9.<strong>407</strong></em></p> Kiran Singh Preeti Siwach Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 10 3 407 407 Exploring biomarkers associated with secondary inflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage using adult Zebrafish model <p>Intracerebral haemorrhage is the condition of bleeding inside the brain, either spontaneous or traumatic. Though this form of stroke accounts to only about 15% of the cases, the mortality rate is the highest. People with stroke associated with ICH very rarely regain functional independence. The post-stroke complications are due to the extending loss of vascular integrity leading to prolonged secondary inflammation. Early detection of biomarkers associated with the condition and the efficacy of these biomarkers to depict the prognostic rate become essential tools for the clinicians to handle patients with ICH. Development of <em>in vivo</em> models that can simulate the intricate pathophysiology of the condition can add up new biomarkers that serve diagnostic and prognostic purposes.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2022.v9.408</em></p> Madhan Kumar Srinivasan Lalitha Vaidyanathan Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 10 3 408 408 Design and synthesis of new Nilutamide-1,2,3-triazole derivatives as in vitro Anticancer agents <p>The synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazoles of Nilutamide (4a–4n) <em>via</em> Cu(I)-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between several terminal alkynes and 1-(3-azidopropyl)-5,5-dimethyl-3-(4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione have been reported herein. <em>In vitro</em> anticancer activity studies of these synthesized compounds over two human prostate cell lines PC3 and DU-145 revealed that the compounds 4c, 4f and 4n exhibit slightly greater activity against two cell lines than the standard etoposide. Predominantly, the compound 4f displayed excellent activity over PC3 and DU-145 having IC<sub>50</sub> values of 1.84and 1.34 μM respectively. The three most potent compounds 4c, 4f and 4n were also investigated for their inhibitory potential against tyrosine kinase EGFR and found that compound 4f showed superior activity than the standard <em>erlotinib</em>, while remaining two compounds 4c and 4n showed comparable activity with the standard.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.cbl.2022.v9.405</em></p> Malla Reddy Nallapu Rajender Vadluri Jeyanthi Arasan Copyright (c) 2022 ScienceIn Publishing 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 10 3 405 405