Leptin in Energy homeostasis, Male reproduction, and Immune regulation
Keywords:Cocaine, Leptin Receptor, Neuropeptide, Erythematosis Lupus, fertility, Fat and reproduction
Discovery of leptin has changed the view of adipose tissue from energy storehouse to active neuroendocrine and immune organ. Adipokineleptin is a16 kDa amino acid protein, encoded by LEP gene, secreted by adipose tissue, and acts through leptin receptor which is a cytokine receptor. Leptin is a central regulator of energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, appetite, satiety and basal metabolism. Leptin acts at each level of hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis (HPG) and has a key role in initiation, progression of pubertal events and sexual maturation. Leptin acts directly at testicular level and affects the spermatogenesis, sperm quality and capacitation thus have important role in male reproduction and fertility. Leptin receptors are present on every cell involved in innate and adaptive immunity and regulate the functions of these cells. Leptin acts as common link between energy homeostasis, reproduction, stress responses and immune system by modulating common complex neuronal circuits. Leptin is implicated in pathogenesis of multiple disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, male infertility and other chronic inflammatory disorders. Therapies based on modulating the functions of leptin can be the key area of research in future for treatment of these chronic disorders.