Impact of altered Energy metabolism and Immune regulation in reproductive health of Aged Men
Keywords:energy metabolism, hormones, immune regulation, reproduction, sperm, infertility
The age of having a first child has increased all around the world. With advancing age, the reproductive system encounters several complications in both males and females. With increasing age in men, increased mitochondrial damage increases, oxidative stress, leading to disruption of immune system. All these are closely associated with one another, and together contribute to age-induced reproductive dysfunctions in men. Changes associated with ageing in men adversely affect steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Immunosenescence causes the altered immunoregulation and accounts for diminished quality and quantity of sperms in men. Various factors like the interaction of sex hormones with environment and genetic factors are the determinants of immune status in an individual. With ageing increased inflammation of the male urogenital tract is also known to account for infertility in men. Further, cytokines and adipokines in age induced obesity adversely effects fertility in men. Thus, there exists an axis connecting age, energy metabolism, sex hormones, immunity and reproductive health. The aim of this review article is to brief the role of various immunoregulatory factors associated with ageing and the impact of age-induced changes in energy metabolism on male reproductive health. Administration of antioxidants or anti-inflammatory agents separately or in combination may be beneficial in treating or mitigating age induced infertility in men.