Journal of Integrated Science and Technology <p>The Journal of Integrated Science and Technology is a peer reviewed journal for publication of fundamental and applied research from all disciplines of science (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, environmental science) and technology (engineering fields and technology advances).</p> <p>The journal board is not accepting more submissions for the 2023 volume as the limit of articles published in a year volume has been reached. Authors may check here when journal would be open for more submissions (only in case the space would be made available after peer-review processing of submissions already in system).</p> ScienceIn Publishing en-US Journal of Integrated Science and Technology 2321-4635 <p>Rights and Permission</p> Design and mathematical analysis of a concentric Triple Tube Heat Exchanger for better heat transfer <p>In the present work, mathematical analyses have been performed for different designs of a concentric triple tube heat exchanger for the enhancement of thermal performance. The main objective of the present work is to perform mathematical analysis of triple concentric tube heat exchanger has to be designed for the various conditions using graphene nanoplatelets–platinum nano-fluid. Concentric triple tube heat exchanger used without baffle, straight baffle and inclined baffles with the inclination angle of 45°, 60° and 75°. For this analysis of concentric triple tube heat exchanger are divided into three different domains such as two cold fluids in the inner and outer tube and one hot fluid in the middle tube at different nano-fluid concentration including 0.0, 0.02, 0.06 &amp; 0.1%. Results show that triple tube heat exchanger with inclined baffle at 75° gives maximum outlet temperature for nano-fluid of 20.77 °K for ø = 0.1which is 21.71% greater than without baffle, 33.56 % greater than straight baffles and 20.58% greater than baffles inclined at 60°. The heat transfer rate of 17.98% higher than without baffle, 27.79% higher than straight baffle and 17.04% higher than baffles inclined at 60°, while the maximum overall heat transfer coefficient of 0.9832 for ø = 0.1 have been observed. Hence concentric triple tube heat exchanger with inclined ribs at 75° recommended for better heat transfer.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.505</em></p> Arvind Gwatiya Nitin Dubey Copyright (c) 2023 Arvind Gwatiya, Nitin Dubey 2023-01-07 2023-01-07 11 3 505 505 An analytical study on testing metrics for software applications <p>In day-to-day life, software applications have acquired an important part. Some of these applications are open source and some are paid ones. Majority of Users mainly search for free, error-free apps that can meet their requirements. So, to make error free applications, proper testing is required which requires more time and efforts. Similar to desktop applications, black box or white box testing can be applied to mobile applications too. The main objective of this paper is to review on different testing methods used for testing mobile applications, web applications or artificial intelligence applications. The paper reviewed and analyzed the recent contributions of researchers using machine learning approach for testing software applications and identified the limitations and future research scope in this field.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.517</em></p> Kamal Kant Sharma Amit Sinha Arun Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Kamal Kant Sharma, Amit Sinha, Arun Sharma 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 11 3 517 517 Differential polynomials on Non-Commutative Rings in Digital Signature scheme <p>In general, digital signatures are based on difficult mathematical problems such as the discrete logarithmic problem, the Conjugacy problem, and the Integer factorization problem. In this article, authors propose a novel digital signature scheme using differential polynomials in Conjugacy problem over non-commutative structures. Initially, an algorithm on non-commutative rings in digital signatures have been generated and proved the confirmation theorem for the proposed algorithm. Finally, the signature algorithm has been evaluated for the security analysis.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.526</em></p> V. Jalaja P. Vijaykumar R. Elumalai G.S.G.N. Anjaneyulu Copyright (c) 2023 V. Jalaja, P. Vijaykumar, R. Elumalai, G.S.G.N. Anjaneyulu 2023-02-26 2023-02-26 11 3 526 526 A facile synthesis of Guanyl Hydrazones: Potent Advance Glycation End products’ (AGE) inhibitors <p>A scaffold of potential Advance Glycation End products (AGE) inhibitor, guanyl hydrazones substituted with different functional groups, has been synthesized by facilitating a condensation reaction between differently substituted chalcones and guanyl hydrazone hydrochloride under microwaves, using anhydrous K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> as green solid support. The free hydrazones were obtained in high yields through an aqueous post-reaction work-up eliminating the use of organic solvent as well as an external base. Hence an efficient and environmentally benign protocol was developed for the synthesis of the target compounds.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.512</em></p> Shuchi Kukreja Copyright (c) 2023 Shuchi Kukreja 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 11 3 512 512 Automation in the Test Rig to determine the Load-Deflection characteristics of Helical Spring Washers <p>In the mechanical system the induced vibrations and dynamic conditions are responsible for loosening the components in nut-bolted assembly. The washer plays a vital character in nut-bolted linkages and prevents the loosening of components. The selection of size and type of washer mainly depends on the size of nut and bolt, frequency and amplitude of vibrations induced in the structure. Many investigators have tried to design and manufacture a test-rig to study the load-deflection properties of spring washers. In the present investigation efforts have been made to design and develop an automated test-rig that can determine the load-deflection characteristics of spring washers. The stepwise and manual operation of the old test-rig is converted into continuous and gradual movement. The main controller used is Arduino Mega 2560 board which controls the stepper motor and display of load for corresponding deflection on monitor of Arduino IDE software. The load-deflection properties obtained from manual test-rig and newly developed automated test-rig are similar in nature. The use of stepper motor and Arduino programing provides the freedom to obtain a very small step size for deflection which helps to obtain smooth curves in load-deflection diagram without any manual error. The time required to obtain the load and deflection values on the serial monitor of an Arduino IDE software is not affected by the decreasing the step size.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.525</em></p> Amit D. Desale Girish R. Desale Copyright (c) 2023 Amit D. Desale, Girish R. Desale 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 11 3 525 525 LED Non-linear effects investigation in visible light communication via fuse transform approach with progressive learning algorithm based distortion <p>Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology, which employs visible light modulation, broadly enables high-speed internet communication in the modern era. Due to its many advantages over conventional radio frequency, including a greater transmission rate, large bandwidth, low energy consumption, fewer health concerns, reduced interference, etc., VLC has recently grown in popularity. LEDs have drawn much attention for VLC implementation because of their exceptional qualities, including low cost and power consumption, but mainly because they can be utilized for lighting and communications. Moreover, LED modulation Scheme like OFDM leads to an excellent top-to-medium power ratio, including clipping with distortion. Here we report a novel Fuse Transform Approach with Progressive Learning Algorithm based Distortion in VLC to transmit the data, attenuate the excellent top-to-medium power ratio, including clipping and distortion, and investigate the LED non-linear effects of VLC.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.513</em></p> Sajitha Rani G L Vijayakumar N Copyright (c) 2023 Sajitha Rani G L, Vijayakumar N 2023-02-14 2023-02-14 11 3 513 513 Soft Computing: Goals, importance and various problem-solving techniques <p>The purpose, importance, approach, qualities, and requirement of soft computing are all discussed in this study. Apart from that, the paper describes the work of numerous writers in soft computing and various problem-solving techniques such as genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and machine learning. The paper also discusses the differences between hard and soft computing. Furthermore, the study discusses various problem-solving techniques' benefits, limitations, and drawbacks. In soft computing, on the other hand, approximation models are utilized instead of traditional computation to handle complicated real-world problems. Soft computing can also be fraught with uncertainty and ambiguity. Soft computing is a form of computing that includes fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks, machine learning, and expert systems. It has become a significant part of the work in automatic control. Soft computing technologies are now widely employed in various residential, corporate, and industrial applications and have proven effective. Soft computing approaches and applications will become more prevalent as low-cost, high-performance digital processors and cheap memory chips become increasingly popular.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.522</em></p> Reeya Agrawal Oshin Sharma Nojood O Aljehane Romany F. Mansour Copyright (c) 2022 Reeya Agrawal, Oshin Sharma, Nojood O Aljehane, Romany F. Mansour 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 11 3 522 522 Optimization in channel selection for EEG signal analysis of Sleep Disorder subjects <p>Deep learning, a branch of artificial intelligence (AI), is establishing a very promising approach for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to sense and extract features from raw signals. The presented work here focuses on optimization in channel selection and batch size for EEG signals to identify sleep disorder subjects from normal ones with the deep learning-based model. It is observed that the data from several electrodes reduced recall obtained also starts reducing. To implement this work, an openly available Physionet EEG dataset from various ten electrodes is used. The long short-term memory (LSTM) method from a class of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) is nominated for the detection of sleep disorder subjects. The suggested method can achieve a recall of 99.8% on the test dataset.</p> Sumedha Borde Varsha Ratnaparkhe Copyright (c) 2022 Sumedha Borde, Varsha Ratnaparkhe 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 11 3 527 527 Convolutional Neural Network based sentiment analysis with TF-IDF based vectorization <p>Recent years have seen an increase in interest in sentiment analysis(SA), which is the process of determining if a textual item communicates a favorable or negative opinion about a certain entity such as a business, people, or government. It plays a crucial part in NLP. The growth of user-generated material in recent years, such as traveler reviews, has resulted in a significant volume of unstructured data that is challenging to extract usable information from. Predicting the precise sentiment polarity of the customer reviews, user ratings, recommendations etc. is still a difficult problem, particularly for fine-grained sentiment categorization, because of the variations in length of the sequence, texts ordering, and complex logics. In this research, first propose sentiment analysis using deep learning, a unique approach compared with other existing techniques which makes the input data sample of a constant sizing and enhances the percentage of sentiments data in each review. Research present CNN-TDIDF family models, which combine CNN and TF-IDF in parallel and are based on deep learning and are inspired by the most current research on neural networks. Experiments on a number of difficult datasets, show that the suggested strategy performs better than many standard approaches. This system has been shown to operate better than conventional machine learning methods and reach 87 percent accuracy rate. Comparing this work to past efforts, we are also able to attain a very high accuracy rate.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.503</em></p> Bhavna Kabra Chetan Nagar Copyright (c) 2023 Bhavna Kabra, Chetan Nagar 2023-01-22 2023-01-22 11 3 503 503 Evaluating the impact of cluster parameters on FPGA performance and density <p>There has been a lot of preliminary investigation on the cluster-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to determine the cluster parameters that result in an efficient architecture in terms of area or speed or both. However, the advancement of technology and Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools provides numerous reasons to further explore FPGA clusters for possible improvements. This work investigates the area and speed performance of FPGA logic block architectures comprising clusters based on look-up tables (LUTs). Two crucial parameters of the cluster-based FPGA architectures are considered for investigation: the size of LUT (K) and the total inputs provided to a cluster (I). The LUT size is varied from 4 to 7 and the cluster inputs are varied from 40% of the total cluster inputs to their maximum permissible value. Experimentally, using VTR tool flow, it is found that the best area-delay trade-off is obtained for 4-input LUT based cluster using 80% of the maximum cluster inputs. It has been observed that some clusters exhibit better trade-off between area and delay with 70-80% of the total cluster inputs.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.520</em></p> Neeti Sunita Dahiya Copyright (c) 2023 Neeti, Sunita Dahiya 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 11 3 520 520 The Integrated SDL-based design approach to create and implement wireless communication protocol <p>Wireless sensor networks (WSN) and personal area networks (WPAN) are being increasingly used in data transfer or communication protocols. The High-end embedded systems sometimes contain a VME (Virtual Memory Environment) backplane or a comparable arrangement. The media access protocol of a local area network (LAN) arbitrates (selects the subsequent transmitter for) access to the shared network medium (typically a wire, fiber, or radio frequency). SDL (Specification and Description Language) is growing popular for the use in creation of communication protocols. In this study, the particular difficulties in networking real-time embedded devices have been discussed with details about a few protocols that show different methods for accessing the shared material. Connection-Oriented Protocols, Polling, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Token Ring, Token Bus, Binary Countdown, and Token Bus are among the protocols addressed. In terms of validation and definition, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and SDLs are identical. The study has examined each of these protocols’ benefits and drawbacks in light of the various criteria. Users can choose a protocol that suits demands with the help of the protocol tradeoff chart. One of the most flexible protocols for embedded systems is CSMA/CA, although only one protocol may be suitable for a given application.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.524</em></p> Mhamane Sanjeev Chandrashekhar Amol Kumbhare Copyright (c) 2023 Mhamane Sanjeev Chandrashekhar, Amol Kumbhare 2023-02-24 2023-02-24 11 3 524 524 Copper-catalyzed ambient synthesis of functionalized 1,4-Dihydropyridines <p>1,4-Dihydropyridine moiety has received much attention due to the wide spectrum of biological activities associated with it. An array of functionalized 1,4-Dihydropyridines has been synthesized in ambient conditions utilizing the catalytic properties of cupric sulfate pentahydrate. The entire focus of the present work has been to develop a ‘benign by design’ protocol with short reaction times and a simple reaction procedure. A wide substrate scope, good product yield, use of an eco-friendly solvent, a re-cyclable catalyst, as well as a reaction at ambient temperature are the advantages of this method. The catalyst cupric sulphate pentahydrate is indispensable for carrying out the reaction at room temperature.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.528</em></p> Shuchi Kukreja Copyright (c) 2023 Shuchi Kukreja 2023-02-05 2023-02-05 11 3 528 528 Comparing the efficacy of nanocurcumin and its bulk counterpart to understand the permeability - an in vitro approach <p>The anti-carcinogenic effects of curcumin have been enhanced by its use in the management of oral cancer when delivered orally, topically, as an adjuvant, and in combination with other drugs. However, the therapeutic effects of bulk curcumin are severely limited by a number of significant related issues including poor absorption and low bioavailability.This may be attributed to the poor permeability of bulk curcumin. The need for a smaller sized and smart molecule was accomplished by generating nanocurcumin.The present research study aimed at synthesis (chemical and green), characterisation, and testing nanocurcumin on human lymphocytes, erythrocytes and OSCC cell lines and comparing its effects with bulk curcumin. The study has demonstrated the improved permeability of nanocurcumin compared to its bulk counterpart. Considering the high prevalence of oral cancer in India and the wide availability of the traditional curcumin, its cost effectiveness provides an excellent potential to nanoformulation of curcumin in cancer treatment.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.533</em></p> Viraaj V Rachael J Khodabux Indhuja J Sudharsan S. Thamizhchelvan H V Deepa Parvathi Copyright (c) 2023 Viraaj V, Rachael J Khodabux, Indhuja J, Sudharsan S., Thamizhchelvan H, V Deepa Parvathi 2023-01-30 2023-01-30 11 3 533 533 Investigation of Ru-complex free Natural dye for the application of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells <p>The fabrication and measurement of natural dyes-based Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been reported using low-cost solution-processable techniques. Titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a solvothermal process using Titanium isopropoxide (TIP) as a precursor. Two different natural dyes, Henna (Lawsonia inermis) and Indian blackberry (IBB; Syzgium cumini), and their cocktail were used as natural sensitizers with anatase-based nanostructure of TiO<sub>2</sub> thin film on conducting glass substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis reveals the uniform distribution of the crystalline anatase phase of TiO<sub>2</sub> upon annealing at 550 ˚C. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and SEM results divulge the absorption capability of dyes and the effect of dye loading on TiO<sub>2</sub> photo-anodes, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried to study the charge transport processes and its effect on the performance of DSSCs. These measurements show the least values of Rpt/Rct and Rpt for D3 dye sensitized DSSC as compare to the other two, with reduced rate of charge recombination resulting from the synergetic effect of co-sensitization of D1 and D2. Thus, the cocktail dye showed promising photovoltaic performance due to an increase in absorption and better dye loading in the device.</p> <p><em>URN:NBN:sciencein.jist.2023.v11.529</em></p> Khushboo Sharma Shyam Sunder Sharma Jaymin Ray Nandu B. Chaure Copyright (c) 2023 Khushboo Sharma, Shyam Sunder Sharma, Jaymin Ray, Nandu B. Chaure 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 11 3 529 529